Video Link:

Selected Strategies for use in Student Groups:

  1. Convey high standards and assure students of their ability to meet those standards. Teach students to view critical feedback as reflective of feedback givers’ high standards and confidence in their ability to meet those standards.
  2. If you are giving students feedback or students are working in groups, remind students that it is ok to challenge the ideas (or justifications) of others, and it is not the students themselves being judged. In other words, convey to students to be mindful of other people’s perspectives, and not to take it personally if someone challenges their ideas or beliefs. However, it is important when giving critical feedback to keep in mind how the other person may receive it.
  3. Help students find similarities they have with other students and appreciate one another’s unique backgrounds.
  4. If students come to you with an issue, take the student’s concerns seriously. If you feel a situation requires action and you feel comfortable addressing the issue, please do so. If you do not feel comfortable or are unsure what to do, refer the student to someone you think may be able to help them.
  5. If you work with students in a group setting, stress the importance of interdependence. Working together will help students consider alternative perspectives and learn new information.
  6. Remind students that knowledge and learning are improved by conversation and collaboration among disparate viewpoints. Respectfully challenging viewpoints and the justifications of others is part of learning. However, it is essential that students be respectful of others and allow everyone a chance to speak.




Recommended References:

  1. Steele, C. M. (2010). Whistling vivaldi: How stereotypes affect us and what we can do. New York, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.


Video References:

  1. Beasley, M. A., & Fischer, M. J. (2012). Why they leave: The impact of stereotype threat on the attrition of women and minorities from science, math and engineering majors. Social Psychology Education, 15, 427-448. doi: 10.1007/s11218-012-9185-3
  2. Forscher, P. S., Lai, C. K., Axt, J. R., Ebersole, C. R., Herman, M., Devine, P. G., & Nosek, B. A. (2018). A meta-analysis of procedures to change implicit measures. Unpublished manuscript.
  3. Jacoby-Senghor, D. S., Sinclair, S., & Shelton, J. N. (2016). A lesson in bias: The relationship between implicit racial bias and performance in pedagogical contexts. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 63, 50-55.
  4. Lai, C. K., Hoffman, K. M., & Nosek, B. A. (2013). Reducing implicit prejudice. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7, 315-330. doi: 10.1111/spc3.12023
  5. Nguyen, H. D., & Ryan, A. M. (2008). Does stereotype threat affect test performance of minorities and women? A meta-analysis of experimental evidence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 1314-1334. doi: 10.1037/a0012702
  6. Schmader, T., & Johns, M. (2003). Converging evidence that stereotype threat reduces working memory capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 440-452. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.3.440
  7. Spencer, S. J., Logel, C., & Davies, P. G. (2016). Stereotype threat. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 415-437. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-073115-103235