Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHJEp56ezWs
Selected Strategies for use in Student Groups:
- Emphasize to students the importance of effort over ability. Understanding doesn’t always happen quickly; deeper learning takes time, using appropriate learning strategies, and getting help from others.
- Focus feedback given to students on the learning process, not on performance.
- Encourage high standards and assure students that all can reach those standards. Teach students that feedback is useful and desired in order to further their understanding. Making errors is normal and is why feedback is so important to learning.
- Avoid providing “comfort feedback” to students. This can make students feel that you doubt their abilities. Instead, express that you have confidence in them to learn from their mistakes and improve as they go forward, and give strategies for them to improve.
- Avoid describing intelligence/ability as fixed; make sure you are not doing this without realizing it (e.g., this class is hard; there is some material that is really difficult to understand).
- Remind students that one low exam grade is not representative of their ability. Share a personal story about yourself or someone you know who struggled initially but persisted and improved their grade in class through hard work, working with others, and changing study strategies.
- Carol Dweck’s Ted Talk on Mindsets: https://www.ted.com/talks/carol_dweck_the_power_of_believing_that_you_can_improve#t-192341
- Mindset Scholars Network: https://mindsetscholarsnetwork.org/
- provides a number of research resources, videos, references to articles, current initiatives, and more
- Dweck, C. S. (2016). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, New York: Penguin Random House LLC.
- Fink, A., Cahill, M. J., McDaniel, M. A., Hoffman, A., & Frey, R. F. (2018). Improving General Chemistry performance through a growth mindset intervention: Selective effects on underrepresented minorities. Chemical Education Research and Practice,19, 783-806. doi: 10.1039/C7RP00244K.
- Burnette, J. L., O’Boyle, E. H., VanEpps, E. M., Pollack, J. M., & Finkel, E. J. (2012). Mind-sets matter: A meta-analytic review of implicit theories and self-regulation. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 655-701. doi: 10.1037/a0029531
- Fink, A., Cahill, M. J., McDaniel, M. A., Hoffman, A., & Frey, R. F. (2018). Improving general chemistry performance through a growth mindset intervention: Selective effects on underrepresented minorities. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 19, 783-806. doi: 10.1039/C7RP00244K
- Paunesku, D., Walton, G. M., Romero, C., Smith, E. N., Yeager, D. S., & Dweck, C. S. (2015). Mind-set interventions are a scalable treatment for academic underachievement. Psychological Science, 26, 784-793. doi: 10.1177/0956797615571017
- Rattan, A., Good, C., & Dweck, C. S. (2012). “It’s ok – Not everyone can be good at math”: Instructors with an entity theory comfort (and demotivate) students. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 731-737. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2011.12.012
- Ritchie, S. J., & Tucker-Drob, E. M. (2018). How much does education improve intelligence? A meta-analysis. Psychological Science, 29, 1358-1369. doi: 10.1177/0956797618774253
- Sisk, V. F., Burgoyne, A. P., Sun, J., Butler, J. L., & Macnamara, B. N. (2018). To what extent and under which circumstances are growth mind-sets important to academic achievement? Two meta-analyses. Psychological Science, 29, 549-571. doi: 10.1177/0956797617739704